The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.
Woods, Francis M.

The XXth Century Arithmetic. Arithmetical computations and business calculations by modern methods. Philosophical in arrangement, natural in progressiveness, and practical in application.


First Edition. Chicago: Educational Association, 1899.

Leather-backed cloth boards, 8vo, 254pp. 31 color lithograph plates and innumerable in-text illustrations and ornament. Good condition with a worn and shaken binding, leather cracked at the spine head, now reinforced from the back, slightly musty, but contents pleasantly bright and clean. A particularly rare first edition of the book (OCLC locates 1 copy at the National Library of Education), which was significantly expanded in the 334-page second edition. The textbook was heavily marketed on its inclusion of color illustrations and focus on practical applications in labor and business, with attention paid not only to the math, but also the processes and forms that would be required. Concretely illustrated principles and examples of deposit slips and bookkeeping accounts helped prepare the student for versatile employment. The author underscores the value of his approach to the evolving demand for educated labor: "It teaches the student what is to take place... so that if deprived of school, the knowledge acquired will be of practical use, thus putting the poor on equal footing on the floors of learning for the most profitable positions."Important American textbook for its method and superb graphic contents.